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Spain, which boasts the longest high-speed rail network in Europe, has found a way to combine its high-speed and conventional infrastructure to meet many different transit needs.

AVE trains run entirely on dedicated tracks between major cities at speeds up to 220 mph. Alvia trains are designed to change gauges so they can run on high-speed tracks as well as the Iberian gauged conventional tracks particular to Spain. Alvia trains, which run at a maximum of 155 mph, are able to bring much faster service to many parts of the country that don't have access to high-speed tracks. Avant trains run fast commuter routes on high-speed dedicated track.

Using high-speed track for commuter trains and outfitting long distance trains to run on both types of track allows Spain to provide fast, convenient service to as many train riders as possible.